- drawing directed graphs difficult due to scale but
not impossible
- 2D layouts in Euclidean space are insufficient for large graphs: number of nodes grows exponentially from root while circumference of circle grows only polynomially. Result: clutter
- example of 2D layout using 'otter'
- 2D layout algorithms converge slowly for large graphs

- 3D layouts in Euclidean space are insufficient
- hyperbolic space layout projected into a ball in euclidean space seems promising. See: http://graphics.stanford.edu/papers/h3/

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