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3rd CAIDA-WIDE Workshop

The third CAIDA/WIDE Workshop was held on April 22-23, 2004 (by invitation only) in Marina del Rey, CA. The Workshop covered three main areas: DNS, IPv6, and BGP, as well as miscellaneous research and technical topics of mutual interest for CAIDA and WIDE participants.

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Dates: April 22 (Thu) - 23 (Fri), 2004
Place: Information Sciences Institute, Marina del Rey, CA

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CAIDA/WIDE Collaboration

The objectives of informal joint CAIDA/WIDE workshops are:
  • to discuss Internet measurement analysis activities going on in each organization;
  • to explore opportunities for joint collaboration on projects;
  • to continue data exchange.

Workshop Minutes

April 22 (Thursday)

  1. Review of 2003 activities

    • Jun Murai (WIDE), WIDE report
      - Internet traffic developments in Japan: rapid increase of stream-based traffic
      - domestic 10GE network: triangle JAIST - Osaka- Tokyo. How to deal with lambda-networks from user's point of view? How to measure these networks if there is still no traffic?
      bill: are there tools to measure trafic at multiple Gb rates?
      kc: what's the goal for making such tools? what are the questions to answer?
      nevil: hardware exists
      kc: does it work?
      bill: real time control of applications' performance is necessary. We need measurements to enable it.
      Kenjiro Cho (WIDE), WIDE measurement activities
      - DNS, IPv6 topology, BGP simulation, netflow/sflow - subjects of this workshop
      - 10G (lambda-networks vs. layer3), StarBED, distributed IX, satellite, AI3, UniDirectionalLinkRouting, mobile, InternetCar, Auto-ID - other topics

    • kc claffy (CAIDA), CAIDA report
      - results in six main areas identified in CAIDA Progam Plan 2003-2005:
      1. macroscopic topology (most comprehensive in the world macroscopic topology data) & routing (new theoretical approaches to compact routing schemes)
      2. workload characterization (2005 goal: 24 hr packet trace from the core)
      3. DNS: this workshop (OARC proposal was submitted to NSF)
      4. performance (BWEST, intermediate RTT from skitter/scamper)
      5. IMDC - Trends (more important now than the amount of money NSF gave to it)
      6. security (automatic detection/protection is the main task)

  2. 11:30-17:30 DNS measurements and modeling

    • Yuji Sekiya (WIDE), Comparison of active and passive measurement results
      - active measurements with dnsprobe (RTTs to root & ccTLD servers) vs. passive measurements with NeTraMet (2 locations since Oct03, at Keio & Tokyo Universities)
      - consistent active&passive results at U. Tokyo, strange M-root RTTs at Keio (different active&passive results!)
      - future plans: re-organize measurements, detect anycast servers, publish NeTraMet results

    • Nevil Brownlee (CAIDA),
      Measurements and laboratory simulations of the upper DNS hierarchy

      - PAM 2004 presentation

      DNS projects at the U. of Auckland
      - new statistical plots to visualize root servers' performance: X - time of day, Y - RTT distribution to a given root, color = # of queries

    • Duane Wessels (CAIDA), Data collection and analysis for DNS-OARC
      - components: passive collector, data files in XML, centralized system for archiving/analysis/display
      - collected: IP protocol types, response codes, query types, etc.
      - examples of graphs: no ICMP attacks on roots (entirely UDP traffic), mysterious spikes in rates of queries for root-server addresses, analysis by query types and clients' subnets
      - software is run on two primary instances of F-root. It keeps a week of data & monthly summaries
      k: CAIDA is commissioned by RSSAC to collect data on effects of anycast & dnssec on the global Internet stability
    • Akira Kato (WIDE), Measurements at M-root server
      - M-root gets MOST of its queries from US (a factor of 5 more than from Japan!)
      - other large contributors: Japan, Korea, China
      bill: lots of people want to collect data from roots. what's the best way? (not everybody likes OARC)
    • Bradley Huffaker (CAIDA), Sources of strange queries at F-root
      - queries come sometimes from Europe and sometimes from the US, there is no clear pattern
      - a small # of prefixes queried both instances of F-root. In principle, this should not happen

    • Matthew Luckie (WAND), IPv6 DNS misconfigurations
      - easy to introduce errors into IPv6 DNS config files/records (typos)
      - got 410 zones, 3% (12) had errors: not as many as expected, but rudimentary checks would help even more (i.e. Best Practices for IPv6 DNS config)

    • Francisco J. Martin (Oregon State University), Toward rapid diagnosis and repair of DNS problems
      - cognitive networking: self- configuring, diagnosing and tuning
      - approach: build a model, identify 'normal' & 'abnormal' behavior, shift diagnostic discovery from endpoints (human users) to the network itself
      - funded by DARPA, looking for more funding

    • Genevieve Bartlett (ISI), Deploying DNSSEC at a root server*
           * This talk was given on Friday, April 23.

      - monitoring traffic at B-root
      - preliminary analysis & statistics

    General discussion: future directions of DNS research and collaboration

    Bill Manning (ISI)
    1. IPv6 queries at root servers: about 20 per 10 minutes
    2. "Bottom-up" DNS measurements
      - is it feasible to study the behavior of "stub" resolvers?
      - get the following data: version id of resolver, # of replies, timestamps, initial & subsequent queries, reply data
      - need a tiny system that would fit into an embedded device/silicon

  3. April 23 (Friday)

  4. IPv6 measurements

    • Matthew Luckie (WAND), Active measurements of IPv6 topology: scamper project
      - scamper PMTU: discover MTUs along the Path
      - scamper analysis shows examples of suboptimal routing (US-US goes through Europe, Japan)
      - discover alternative path and examine delays along each path
      bill: what are possible path metrics? RTT is one, largest MTU may be another.
    • Kenjiro Cho (WIDE), Dual-stack world: a view from .jp
      - iWhy is the IPv6 performance often much worse than IPv4 one?
      - pinged dual v4-v6 sites: 10% unreachable, ~60% reachable for both, 20% unreachable for IPv6, 10% unreachable for IPv4
      - compared rtts: most sites - not bad, but there is a number of BAD sites
      - next step: make measurements from Europre & US, improve visualization
      kc: isn't it true that tunnels make routing bad?
      bill: is info about tunnels in RTTs? but: in long or short ones?

    General discussion: future directions of IPv6 research and collaboration

    • Kenjiro Cho (WIDE)
      - IPv6 measurement metrics at IAJapan
    • k claffy (CAIDA)
      - problem - we can't measure tunnels (layer 2)
      - what should be the outcome of IPv6 research? a web page monitoring & comparing IPv6-IPv4 performance?
      - should we encourage users to switch from tunnels to native?
    • Jun Murai (WIDE)
      - measurement/analysis should be aimed to help improve the future design
    • BillManning (ISI)
      - ping root & TLD servers from a number of locations, compare IPv6-IPv4 performance

  5. Traffic Monitoring

    • Bartek Wydrowski (Caltech), FAST TCP - Internet Congestion Control*
           * This talk was given on Thursday, April 22.

      - tested to some extent (dummynet, PlanetLab, Internet2 backbone, ns-2), future - WAN in the lab
      - algorithm yields steady throughput
      - TCP benchmark - need for an independent verification, reproducibility, fair comparison. Who can do it?

    • Seiichi Yamamoto, Traffic monitoring by sflow
      - The goal is to establish practical traffic monitoring & to deal with high-speed networks
      - sflow simplifies the measurements by using packet sampling. ALthough it does not provide complete information, it reveals the trend (cf. RFC 3176)
      - next steps: verify meauserement stability, find effective points for monitoring
      david: we at UCSD developed an adaptive packet sampling technique
    • Colleen Shannon, Security data collection at CAIDA
      - trace collection involves:
      1. maintaining remote monitors
      2. transfering data to SDSC (huge files over slow links)
      3. sanitizing data (tradeoff between payload & IP anonymizing)
      4. providing access to external users
      - network telescope: DoS attacks, network worms (Code Red, Sapphire, Witty)
      bill: how to distinguish between harmful worms & possible beneficial self-propagating code (i.e. patches & updates)?
  6. BGP and Routing

    • Kengo Nagahashi, BGP simulation environment on Starbed
      - STARBED is a large-scale PC cluster
         scales: basic (14 hosts), middle (~100), large (~1000)
      - comparison of convergence time for random topology & hierarchical topology (longer for random topology)

    • Dima Krioukov, Compact routing model
      - new theoretical approaches to Internet routing

    • Kenjiro Cho, Server placement/selection for scale-free networks
      - simulations to estimate the efficiency of different server selection algorithms on scale-free graphs
      - future plans: animations

Action items discussion and wrapup
  • kc claffy
    - statement of work for WIDE
  • Marina Fomenkov
    - next workshop on August 6-7, 2004 in San Diego (after IETF meeting)
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